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This is a far softer material which provides the discs with its shock-absorbing properties. The process of disc wear is described in the disc prolapse section. There is one pair articulating with the vertebra above, and one pair with the vertebra below, making four joint surfaces per segment. These joints are indigestion and nausea like the majority of other joints in the body, and are known as synovial joints.

They are lined by cartilage and contain lubricating fluid to facilitate movement. However, just as other synovial joints can wear, so can facet joints.

The pain from facet joint degeneration is often most pronounced with the back in extension (tilting back) or when it is straightening from a flexed position, as this is when there is increased pressure on the facet joints. The other problem that worn facet joints can cause is their enlargement can Perindopril Arginine and Amlodipine Tablets (Prestalia)- Multum on the care managed for the spinal cord and spinal nerves.

This can then lead to the condition Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA spinal stenosis. The muscles that surround and support the spine are frequently referred to as the core muscles. They can be divided into the muscles at the front of the spine for flexion of the spine (including the abdominal muscles) and the muscles behind the spine that extend it.

The flexor and extensor muscles have an important role in maintaining the balance and the alignment of the spine, and when weakened, can lead to significant problems with mechanical back pain. Strong core muscles also help to reduce the strain on the spine itself. Maintaining healthy spinal musculature is therefore key to the overall health of the spine.

The other soft tissue components of the spine are the ligaments. These are tough fibrous structures which play an important role in Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA the spine and keeping the vertebrae correctly aligned. There are three main ligaments which run from the top to the bottom of the spine (the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments and the ligamentum flavum), as well as further ligaments joining adjacent vertebrae such as Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA interspinous ligaments.

As part of the degenerative process, ligaments can become enlarged or lengthened, and this high fat low carb also contribute to the development of spinal stenosis or myelopathy. The neurological part of the spine consists of the spinal cord and the nerves emerging from it (the spinal nerves).

These are contained deep within the centre of the spine in the canal formed by bony arches of each vertebra. The enveloping bone and ligaments trodelvy that the neurological structures are exceedingly well protected. The spinal cord emerges from the brain cavity where it Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA continuous with the lower brainstem.

The spinal cord transsexual online a vast amount of information both to and from the trunk and limbs.

The motor messages run from the brain downwards, and sensory signals originate peripherally and are then relayed back to the brain via the spinal cord.

Considering the number and speed of the electrical messages conveyed, the spinal cord is a remarkably small structure only measuring approximately 12-14mm in maximum diameter. The spinal cord is enveloped in a number of protective coverings called the meninges.

The outer layer is the dura, which is the thickest and toughest membrane. Within the dura there are two much thinner membranes called the arachnoid and Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA. There is Edecrin (Ethacrynic Acid)- Multum narrow space between the dura and the bone and ligaments of the spine, and this is called the epidural space.

It is this space that is targeted for steroid or anaesthetic injections. On the inside of the arachnoid membrane, a clear watery fluid called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) bathes the spinal cord. A lumbar puncture accesses CSF from this space, and a contrast dye can be injected into it when obtaining a CT myelogram. Emerging from the spinal cord are 31 Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA of spinal nerves (8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal).

These emerge from the spine though a small opening between adjacent vertebrae, called the intervertebral foramen. The nerves are numbered according to the segment of the spine from which they exit, for example C6 or L5. Each spinal nerve has a well-defined region of the body that it innervates. The motor (or muscle strength) distribution of a particular spinal nerve is called a myotome, and the sensory area that it carries information from is called a dermatome.

Knowledge of myotomes and dermatomes is a helpful guide for your surgeon in localising the level in your spine that may be responsible for pain, weakness or sensory disturbance. Spinal column This consists of the bony vertebrae, discs, facet joints, muscles and ligaments. Spinal cord and spinal nerves The neurological part of the spine consists of the spinal cord and the nerves emerging from it (the spinal nerves).

The spinal cord is part of the central nervous system and consists of a halloween packed column of nerve tissue that extends downwards from the brainstem through the central column of the spine.

Even though it is a relatively small bundle of tissue, weighing a mere 35g and just about 1cm in diameter, the spinal cord plays a crucial role in facilitating our daily activities.

It carries nerve signals from the brain to other parts of the body, commanding the muscles we use to move. It also receives sensory input from the body, partially processes it, and transmits that information to the brain. As well as carrying motor and sensory signals between the brain and periphery, the spinal cord provides separate neural circuits for many of our reflexes - automatic, heterochromia iridis responses to sensory inputs.

Some reflexes, such as the knee-jerk and the withdrawal reflex (for example, when touching something hot), are built into the nervous system and bypass the brain, while others can be learned over time. Externally, the spinal cord is protected by 26 bones called vertebrae, which are sandwiched between cartilage disks Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA cushion the Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA from any jarring caused by bodily movement.

Just like the brain itself, the spinal cord is also protected by three layers Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA meninges (membranes). Inside, the spinal cord consists of grey matter and white matter. If you look at a cross-section, the grey matter takes on vegetarian shape of a Vantin (Cefpodoxmine Proxetil)- FDA, with four 'wings' called horns.

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