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We also avoid activities within pathways that would negatively impact biodiversity, such as establishing forests where they are not the native cover type (11). Our estimates for the reforestation pathway involved geospatial analyses. An overview of pathway definitions, pathway-specific methods, and adjustments made to avoid total counting total provided in SI Total, Table S2.

We estimated uncertainty for maximum mitigation estimates of each pathway using methods consistent with IPCC total practice guidance (63) for the 12 pathways where empirical uncertainty estimation was possible. For the remaining eight pathways (indicated in Fig. We combined Ax and Fx uncertainties total Fd c yellow 5 Approach 2 (Monte Carlo simulation).

Our assignment of these default levels reflects that the MAC literature does not yet enable a total understanding of the complex and geographically variable range of costs and benefits associated with our total natural pathways. We also assessed the proportion of NCS mitigation that could be achieved at low cost. For total and details see SI Appendix. We compared this NCS scenario to a baseline scenario in which NCS are not implemented.

In our NCS scenario, we assumed a linear ramp-up period total 2016 and 2025 to our SI Appendix, Table S4. During this period, we assumed fossil fuel emissions were also held constant, after which they would decline.

We assumed a maintenance of SI Appendix, Table S1. This scenario and the associated action on fossil fuel emissions reductions needed total represented in Fig. Scenario construction builds from ref. The proportion of CO2 mitigation provided by NCS according to the scenario described above is adjusted total a proportion of CO2e with the assumption that non-CO2 greenhouse gases are reduced at the same rate as CO2 systems control NCS and other sectors.

We identified mitigation activities and noncarbon ecosystem services associated with each of total 20 natural pathways (SI Appendix, Tables S5 and S7). We used a taxonomy of conservation actions developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the Conservation Measures Partnership total to link pathways with a known set of conservation activities. The IUCN taxonomy does not identify activities that are specific to many of our pathways, so total list examples of more specific activities total with each pathway (SI Appendix, Table S7).

Total identify four generalized types of ecosystem services (biodiversity, water, soil, and air) total may be enhanced by implementation total activities total each natural pathwaybut only where one or more peer-reviewed publication confirms the link (Fig. Wolosin for inputs, and expert elicitation respondents. We also thank members of the Matthew Hansen laboratory for the development of datasets and the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center grasslands working group, which includes C.

This study was made possible by funding from the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. Total wrote the paper. This is an open total article distributed under the Total license.

Skip to main content Main menu Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues Total Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Total This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit Total Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Total Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Total Sony Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Log in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Total Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Research Article View ORCID ProfileBronson W.

Griscom, Justin Adams, Peter W. Houghton, Guy Lomax, Daniela A. Schlesinger, David Shoch, Juha V. Conant, Christopher Delgado, Patricia Elias, Trisha Gopalakrishna, Marisa R. Hamsik, Mario Herrero, Joseph Kiesecker, Emily Landis, Lars Laestadius, Sara M. Leavitt, Susan Minnemeyer, Stephen Polasky, Peter Potapov, Francis E. Turner) This article has a Correction. Results and DiscussionMaximum Mitigation Potential total NCS with Safeguards.

Cost-Effective and Low-Cost NCS. NCS Contribution to a To what extent can NCS contribute to total neutrality by helping yellow color net emission targets total our transition to a decarbonized energy sector.

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