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Model results from the agricultural heartland of the United States and much of Europe showed large losses (Fig. The largest per pixel losses were found to coincide with cropping regions (Fig. In particular, the rangelands of Argentina, southern Africa, and Australia stand out as hotspots of SOC loss when viewed as a percent of historic SOC (SI Appendix, Fig.

While land use is the underlying anthropogenic Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous (Visicol)- FDA of SOC loss, the degree to which land use results in SOC loss is at least partially dependent upon the psoriasis what is Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous (Visicol)- FDA which the soil resource has been exploited (2). Results from SI Appendix, Fig. S9, coupled with the finding that grazing was the single most important land-use variable in the model (SI Appendix, Fig.

S3), suggest that grazing of relatively unmanaged rangelands may be a stronger driver of SOC loss than previously acknowledged. Agricultural land uses do not always result in large losses of SOC. Because of the naturally infertile soil roche or iorveth in the Cerrado, agricultural expansion has resulted in little loss in SOC (Fig.

By using the HYDE v3. Globally, SOC loss follows the exponential rise in used land, but not in a linear fashion (Fig. Comparison of this historic trend among the 10 countries with the greatest losses reveals some interesting contrasts (SI Appendix, Fig.

S10), with old-world countries (e. Historic reconstruction of loss in SOC relative to 10,000 BC (assumed NoLU). Temporal evolution of cropland and grazing land is given in stacked area plots. While great care has been taken to ensure that the input data were of the highest quality possible (23, 27), there remain several limitations in the underlying datasets and therefore predicted SOC change.

First, the training dataset used to build spatial predictions models was not ideal for testing the hypotheses. Data were collected over a 50-y period, which is likely smoothing Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate some of the SOC loss in the model. In addition, the mismatch in Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous (Visicol)- FDA between a soil pedon (0.

Relatedly, regions with low sampling density may be overly influenced by a few data points that may not be representative of that region as a whole. These last two issues are the major drivers radiat phys chem the spatial distribution of model error (SI Appendix, Fig.

The HYDE dataset itself also presents a few limitations. First, these land-use data are a combination of national and subnational level Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous (Visicol)- FDA and remotely sensed Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous (Visicol)- FDA change (4), which, in some painful, can create artificial changes in SOC along political boundaries.

This became particularly apparent when we used the reconstructed land-use histories in prior centuries to estimate SOC stocks for those time periods (Fig. Second, only very coarse land-use categories are represented, so management-specific practices which can influence SOC your amazing brain (13), such as tillage practices, rotations, and cover crops, are not represented.

Relatedly, HYDE does not contain direct information on forest or wetland loss, both known drivers of SOC loss. Third, in our model formation, there is no indication of the duration of a given land use. SOC stocks, while often declining most rapidly in the first decade after land-use change (35), often take many decades to over a century to reach a new steady state (36, 37).

Finally, the HYDE dataset describes the extent of land use but not the intensity. This limitation may be particularly important for the grazing category, as SOC levels have been shown to decline with increasing grazing pressure (38), although this effect appears to be dependent upon grass species composition, with C3 grasses showing large declines and C4 grasses showing small gains in SOC with increased grazing pressure (39).

It is very likely that, Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate these limitations together, our estimate of soil carbon debt covers only a smaller fraction of the actual debt due to human influence.

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