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The anonymized data obtained from the National Health Insurance claims of Republic of Korea were analyzed. The flow of the population in this case-control study is represented in Figure 1.

In detail, the population-based dataset comprised all patients tested for COVID-19 from January 20, 2020, when the first case of COVID-19 was observed in South Korea, to May 15, 2020, including suspected and confirmed cases, with demographic information and medical services history how to write an introduction for a research paper the past 3 years.

The analysis was performed on 234,427 patients tested for COVID-19 with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) diagnosis codes of B342, B972, Z208, Z290, U18, U181, Z038, Z115, U071, and U072.

Screening was conducted by performing polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral E gene and the RdRp region of the ORF1b gene was amplified to confirm COVID-19.

Among the total 234,427 patients with COVID-19 screening test results, 6,462 subjects were confirmed to have liver cirrhosis over 19 years.

The presence of 120 mg orlistat cirrhosis was established based on ICD-10 codes for liver cirrhosis (K702, K703, K704, How to write an introduction for a research paper, K720, K721, K729, K740-K746, K761, K766-K767, R18, I850, I859, I864, I868, I982, I983) (12).

Among patients with liver cirrhosis, there were 67 (1. Cases and controls were matched according to a 1:5 ratio based on covariates such as sex, age, region, and tested Naloxone Hydrochloride Injection (Narcan)- FDA, considering the explosive outbreak in Daegu and Gyeongbuk regions (13, 14).

Patients were classified to either Daegu and Gyeongbuk regions or other regions, and hospitals in which patients had been tested were classified to tertiary hospitals and others. Patients' covariates were matched, but the nearest neighbor matching was performed on age, with a caliper width of 0. The final numbers of cases and controls were 67 and 332, respectively.

Then, whether the subjects were exposed to spironolactone within 1 year from when the patients were tested for COVID-19 was evaluated. Further subgroup analysis for complication rate was done on the case group. Complications due to severe COVID-19 disease were defined as cases requiring intervention, such as oxygen therapy, anti-viral therapy, vasopressors, admission to the intensive care unit, continuous renal how to write an introduction for a research paper therapy, or death (15) (Supplementary Table 1).

Patients were divided into two groups: those with complications and those without complications (16). There were 35 and 32 patients with and without complications, respectively. Exposure to spironolactone was defined as the administration of spironolactone at least once within 1 year before the date of COVID-19 testing.

How to write an introduction for a research paper additional sensitivity analyses were performed to verify the robustness of the study findings. With at least one claim within 6 months and 3 months for prescription of spironolactone, we classified these according to exposure to spironolactone and performed additional analyses. For spironolactone, the WHO DDD is 75 mg. The illustration for the study design and spironolactone exposure is presented in Supplementary Figure 1.

Underlying 500 amoxil were established based on diagnosis codes of the ICD-10. The considered comorbidities were decompensated liver cirrhosis, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarction and stroke, cancer, lung disease including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with dialysis, and immunocompromised status including autoimmune diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infections.

These comorbidities in the present study were chosen based on the announcement of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the How to write an introduction for a research paper. S that these comorbidities increased risk of severe illness from COVID-19 infection (19) (Supplementary Table 1) The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was also used as a miss roche (20), and a higher CCI score indicated a greater likelihood that the predicted outcome would result in mortality.

Comparisons between both groups were performed using Student's t-tests for continuous variables and chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests for categorical variables. For multivariable-adjusted analysis according to COVID-19 status, two models were used because of the limited study population.

Model 1 was adjusted for hypertension, dyslipidemia, and CCI because CCI does not include hypertension and dyslipidemia. Model 2 was adjusted for decompensated liver cirrhosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, lung disease, ESRD with dialysis, and CCI, which were significant at the P P P Before matching, the number of patients in the case and control groups were dental phobia and 6,395, respectively.

After matching, a total of 399 subjects were analyzed. The baseline characteristics of the study population are presented in Table 1. The mean age was 60. The proportions hematocrit decompensated liver cirrhosis, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, lung disease, and ESRD with dialysis were significantly higher in the control group compared with the case group.

The CCI was higher in the control group than case group (6. The complication rate was 52. Baseline characteristics of patients with liver cirrhosis, according to COVID-19. The results of the logistic regression analysis for COVID-19 infection according to exposure to spironolactone are shown in Table 2. Additional analyses within 6 months and 3 how to write an introduction for a research paper also show a significant difference between case and control groups (P 30 were significant regardless of different definitions for the timing of spironolactone exposure.

However, a dose-response relationship was not shown for the association between spironolactone exposure and COVID-19 (Table 2). For risk stratification, subgroup analyses for COVID-19 status were performed by stratifying the study population by sex and age.

The results of these analyses are shown in Supplementary Table 2. Baseline characteristics of the complication and no complication groups of patients with liver cirrhosis and COVID-19 infection are shown in Table 3.

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