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These structures make the thoracic spine more stable than the cervical or lumbar regions. Lumbar SpineThe lumbar spine has treatment for breast cancer stage 2 vertebrae abbreviated L1 through L5 (largest). Each structural element of a Clindamycin Phosphate And Benzoyl Peroxide Gel (Neuac)- FDA vertebra is bigger, wider and broader than similar components in the cervical and thoracic regions.

The lumbar spine has more range of motion than the thoracic spine but less than the cervical spine. The lumbar facet joints allow for significant flexion and extension movement while limiting rotation. Sacral SpineThe sacrum is located behind the pelvis. Five bones (abbreviated S1 through S5), fused into Nizoral Shampoo (Ketoconazole 2%)- Multum triangular shape, form the sacrum.

The sacrum fits between the two hipbones connecting the spine to the pelvis. The last lumbar vertebra (L5) articulates (moves) with the sacrum. Immediately Clindamycin Phosphate And Benzoyl Peroxide Gel (Neuac)- FDA the sacrum are five additional bones fused together to form the coccyx (tailbone). To help further understand and describe the anatomy, spine specialists often refer to specific body planes.

A body plane is an imaginary flat, two-dimensional surface that is used to define a particular anatomical area. When viewed from the front (coronal plane), the healthy spine is straight.

A sideways curve in the spine is known as scoliosis. When viewed from the side (sagittal plane) the mature spine has four distinct curves. These curves are described as being either kyphotic or lordotic.

A kyphotic curve is a convex curve in the spine (i. The curves in the thoracic and sacral spine are kyphotic. A lordotic curve is concave (i. All vertebrae consist of the same basic elements, with the exception of the first two cervical vertebrae. The outer shell of a vertebra is made of cortical bone. This type of bone is dense, solid and strong. Inside each vertebra is cancellous bone, which is weaker than cortical bone and consists of loosely knit structures miller look somewhat like a honeycomb.

Bone Clindamycin Phosphate And Benzoyl Peroxide Gel (Neuac)- FDA, which forms red blood cells and some types of white blood cells, is found within the cavities of cancellous bone. The joints in the spinal column are located posterior to the vertebral body (on the back side). These joints help the spine bend, twist and extend in different directions. Although the joints enable movement, they also restrict excessive movements like Clindamycin Phosphate And Benzoyl Peroxide Gel (Neuac)- FDA and hyperflexion (i.

Each vertebra has two facet joints. The superior articular facet faces upward and works like a hinge with the inferior articular facet (below). Like other joints in the body, each facet joint is surrounded by a capsule of connective tissue and produces synovial fluid to nourish and lubricate the joint.

The surfaces of the joint are coated with cartilage to help each joint move (articulate) smoothly. Between the vertebral bodies is a "cushion" called an intervertebral disc. Each disc absorbs the stress and shock the body incurs during movement and prevents the vertebrae amaranth grinding against one another.

The intervertebral discs are the largest structures in the body without a vascular supply. Through osmosis, each disc absorbs needed nutrients. Annulus FibrosusThe annulus is a sturdy, tire-like structure that encases a gel-like centerthe nucleus pulposus. The annulus consists of water and layers of sturdy elastic collagen fibers. The fibers are oriented at different horizontal angles, similar to the construction of a radial tire.

Collagen gains its strength from strong fibrous bundles Clindamycin Phosphate And Benzoyl Peroxide Gel (Neuac)- FDA protein that are linked together.

Nucleus PulposusThe center portion of each intervertebral disc is a filled with a gel-like elastic substance. Together with the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus transmits stress and weight from vertebra to vertebra. Like the annulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus consists of water, collagen and proteoglycans. However, the proportion of these substances in the nucleus pulposus is different. The nucleus contains more water than the annulus. The spinal cord is a slender, cylindrical structure about the width of the little finger.

The spinal cord begins immediately below the brain stem and extends to the first lumbar vertebra (L1). Thereafter, the cord blends with the conus medullaris that becomes the cauda equina, a group of nerves resembling the tail of a horse.

The phytonutrients nerve roots are responsible for stimulating movement and feeling.

The nerve roots exit the spinal canal through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra. The brain and the spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS). Between the front and back portions of the vertebra (i. The foramen are small openings formed between each vertebra. The muscular system of the spine is complex, with several different muscles playing important roles. Specific muscles are associated with movement of specific parts of the anatomy.

For example, the sternocleidomastoid muscle assists with movement of the head, while the psoas major muscle is associated with flexion of the thigh. Muscles, Clindamycin Phosphate And Benzoyl Peroxide Gel (Neuac)- FDA individually or in groups, are supported by fascia.

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