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Peripheral enhancement can be seen on both contrast-enhanced CT and MR imaging. Axial contrast-enhanced CT image acquired during the portal-venous phase shows multiple irregularly marginated non-enhancing lesions (asterisks). Fungal abscesses occur most commonly in immunocompromised individuals.

Johnson peter MR imaging, splenic fungal lesions demonstrate intermediate signal intensity on T1-WI and high signal intensity on T2-WI, relative to normal splenic tissue.

Axial contrast-enhanced CT image acquired during the portal-venous phase shows multiple small Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution)- Multum splenic foci (white arrows). Note also multiple similar small non-enhancing foci in the liver, representing fungal liver abscesses (black arrows). Rarely, multiple tiny hypoechoic Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution)- Multum occasionally, hyperechoic focal lesions, are seen (Fig.

On US, hypoechogenicity is the rule, although some lesions may be hyperechoic. Although micronodular lesions are Rifater (Rifampin, Isoniazid and Pyrazinamide)- Multum below the resolution of CT, tiny low-density foci are occasionally seen throughout the spleen (Fig.

Calcifications may occur in late stage disease. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology that is histologically characterised by multiple nonspecific non-caseating granulomas. The nodules are hypovascular on contrast-enhanced images.

Note the mediastinal and hilar adenopathies, which provide clues to the diagnosis (white arrows). Splenomegaly is a common nonspecific manifestation of many disorders.

The upper limit is defined as 15 cm length (craniocaudal), 10 cm width (laterolateral) and 6 cm Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution)- Multum (anteroposterior).

Axial contrast-enhanced CT image shows free perisplenic fluid (asterisks) and an enlarged spleen with a heterogeneous area (arrows), which represents the area of laceration.

Gamna-Gandy bodies are small haemorrhages in the spleen caused by different disorders, as summarised in Table III. They are most commonly secondary to portal hypertension. These lesions contain haemosiderin, a variable amount of fibrous tissue and calcium. On CT, non-calcified foci appear as multiple, small low-attenuation foci,(2) while calcified lesions appear hyperdense.

MR imaging usually demonstrates multiple small foci of low signal Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution)- Multum on all pulse sequences, due 117 ap iron deposition (Fig. Gamna-Gandy bodies in a 68-year-old man with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Note the nodular aspect of the liver parenchyma, which is compatible with cirrhosis.

The spleen can be affected by a variety of conditions. US, CT and MR imaging are complementary tools for noninvasive characterisation and evaluation of splenic diseases. Many of these conditions can involve the spleen and have similar imaging manifestations. If uncertainty of a diagnosis persists, percutaneous biopsy may be considered.

Hilmes MA, Strouse PJ. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. Vanhoenacker FM, Op de Beeck B, De Schepper AM, et al. Vascular disease of the spleen. Paterson A, Frush DP, Donnelly LF, et al.

A pattern-oriented approach to splenic imaging in infants and children. Urban Brovana (Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution)- Multum, Fishman EK. Helical CT of the spleen. Sapiosexual is sonography of the spleen. Fenchel S, Boll DT, Fleiter TR, Brambs HJ, Merkle EM. Multislice helical CT of the pancreas and spleen. Gayer G, Hertz M, Strauss S, Zissin R.

Congenital anomalies of the spleen. Dodds WJ, Taylor AJ, Erickson SJ, Stewart ET, Lawson TL. Radiologic imaging of average size penis anomalies. CT features of the accessory spleen. Fulcher AS, Turner MA.

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