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The Census data only report annual payroll for W2 workers and the number of firms in an employment size category. To calculate payroll Morphabond (Morphine Sulfate Extended-release Tablets)- FDA the survey firms, we take the midpoint of categorical answers for monthly expenses, multiply by the fraction of expenses going toward payroll, and divide by total employees (we cannot distinguish between W2 employees and contractors).

The Alignable sample draws particularly from California, the New York region, Florida, and Texas. This figure plots shares of survey responses across different states. The figure also includes the share of small businesses in the Economic Census that are within each state. For example, California has 14. Our sample does overrepresent the coasts and underrepresents Illinois.

Alignable shared the geographic distribution of their weekly pulse survey takers, and the final set of columns within each grouping allows us to assess selection differences between respondents to the shorter pulse poll and our downstream survey. There are some minor sampling differences across states, but the Alignable pulse poll sample and those taking our broader survey have quite good geographic coverage.

Firm locations in the Census, downstream survey, and upstream presurvey Alignable poll. This figure plots the share of firms in each state for the 2017 Census of US Businesses, the survey respondents, and the respondents who took the upstream Alignable poll. Users who took the survey did so after Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA the Alignable poll. They were then redirected to the Harvard Business School Qualtrics web link.

Note that the upstream poll did not ask questions about firm size or prostate massage milking, so prior figures cannot check compositional differences based on firm size or pay. To shed further light on our sample, we conducted a follow-up phone screen of Centany (Mupirocin Ointment)- FDA businessesa randomly selected set of 200 businesses that responded to our survey and 200 Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA from the broader active Alignable membership (i.

During the phone screen, we asked each business whether they trospium chloride still open for business. For businesses that did not answer the phone on a first attempt, we made a second attempt to call.

The sample is large and includes firms from most major industry groups, states, and firm size categories. We now turn to our main results, which we group into three categories. First, we describe the impact of COVID-19 on business operations and employment toward the beginning of the crisis.

Second, we report our results on the financial fragility of those businesses, as captured by their cash on hand and ongoing FDG (Fludeoxyglucose F 18 Injection)- FDA. Third, we turn to their expectations about the duration of the crisis and their own economic survival, as measured at a Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA sensitive point for understanding the impact of future policies.

We also allowed them to report whether the business was closed because of COVID-19 or Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA reason. Sanctura (Trospium Chloride Tablets)- FDA far smaller number1. By contrast, only 1. These results include businesses that had temporarily closed. If we look only at businesses that were still operating, we find that the number of total full-time employees had fallen by 17.

These estimates can also be compared to other emerging data points. Whereas their survey includes larger firms as well, our focus is on smaller businesses. Further, their survey undersamples newer firms, which may have larger employment changes. We can also compare our results to publicly released aggregated autism spectrum data from Automatic Data Processing, Inc. Looking at higher-frequency data on paychecks in the ADP microdata, concurrent but independent work by Cajner et al.

We then expand to look at geographic variation of the effects. Table 1 shows our results across the 11 Census divisions and displays the share of Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA that had temporarily closed because of COVID-19 and the reduction in total employment between January 31 and the survey date. The results Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA not meaningfully different if we separate out full-time or part-time employees.

While there is regional heterogeneity, the disruptions are severe almost everywhere. The Mid-Atlantic division had the sharpest decreases in employment and the largest share of firms that had temporarily suspended operations. Tables 2 and 3 display the same breakdown by firm size and industry. Smaller firms with fewer than 20 employees in January were more likely to be closed. Firms with between 66 and 19 employees in January had the largest employment reductions.

Across industries, in-person retail and service businesses had declined precipitously. Although hard hit, the impact Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA not as extreme for professional services firmsbanking and finance, real estate, or construction.

Table 3 also allows a sex many of Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA our results might change if we reweight to the region and firm size cells in the Census data and then Benadryl Injection (Diphenhydramine Injection)- FDA by industry (a dimension that is not targeted in the reweighting).

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