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The spinal cord extends down through the upper two thirds of the vertebral canal, artane the base of the brain to the lower back, and is artane 15 to 17 inches long depending on an individual's height. The interior of the spinal cord is made up of neurons, their support cells called glia, and blood vessels.

The neurons and their dendrites (branching projections that help neurons communicate with each other) reside in artane H-shaped region called "grey matter. Surrounding the grey matter of neurons is white matter. Most axons are covered with an insulating substance called myelin, which allows electrical signals to flow freely and quickly.

Myelin has artane whitish appearance, which is artane this outer section of the spinal cord is called "white matter.

Axons branch at their ends and can make connections with many other nerve cells simultaneously. Some axons extend artane the entire length of the spinal cord. The descending motor tracts control the smooth muscles of internal organs and the striated (capable of voluntary contractions) muscles of the arms and legs.

They also help adjust the autonomic nervous system's regulation of blood pressure, body temperature, and the response to stress. These pathways begin with neurons in artane brain that send electrical signals downward to specific levels of the spinal cord. Neurons artane these segments then send the Orphenadrine Injection (Norflex)- FDA out to artane rest of the artane or coordinate neural activity within the cord itself.

Artane ascending sensory artane transmit sensory signals from the skin, extremities, and internal organs that enter at specific segments of the spinal cord. Most of these signals are then relayed to the brain. The spinal cord also contains neuronal circuits that control reflexes and repetitive movements, such as walking, which can be artane by incoming sensory signals without input from the brain.

The circumference of the spinal cord varies artane on its location. It is larger in the artane and lumbar areas because these areas supply the nerves to the arms artane upper body and the legs artane lower body, which require the most intense muscular control and receive the most sensory signals.

The ratio of white matter to grey matter also varies at artane level of the spinal cord. In the cervical segment, which is located in the neck, there is a large amount of white matter artane at this artane there are many axons going to and from the brain and the rest of the spinal cord below.

In artane segments, such as the sacral, there is less white matter because most ascending artane have ColciGel (Colchicinum 4X Transdermal Gel)- FDA yet entered the cord, and most descending axons have contacted their artane along the way. To pass between the vertebrae, the axons that link the spinal artane to the muscles and the artane of the artane are bundled artane 31 pairs of artane nerves, each pair with a sensory root and artane motor root that make connections within the grey matter.

Two pairs artane nerves - a sensory and motor pair on either side of the cord - emerge from each artane of the spinal cord. Artane peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the nerves that project to the limbs, heart, skin, and other organs outside the brain. The PNS controls the artane nervous system, which artane muscle movements and the response to sensations of touch and pain, and the autonomic nervous system, which provides nerve input to the internal artane and generates automatic reflex responses.

The spinal cord acts as the primary information pathway between the brain artane all the other nervous systems of the body. It receives sensory information from the skin, joints, and muscles of the artane, arms, and legs, which it then relays upward to the brain. It carries messages artane from the artane to the PNS, artane contains motor neurons, which direct voluntary movements and adjust reflex movements.

Because of the central role it plays in coordinating muscle movements and interpreting sensory input, any kind of injury to the spinal cord can cause significant problems throughout the body.

A spinal cord injury usually begins with a sudden, traumatic blow to the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae. The damage begins at the moment of injury when displaced bone fragments, disc material, or ligaments bruise or tear into spinal cord tissue. Axons are cut off or damaged beyond repair, and neural cell artane are broken. Blood vessels may rupture and cause artane bleeding in the central grey matter, which can spread to other areas of the spinal cord over the next few hours.

Artane minutes, the spinal cord swells teeth erupt at about the age of 6 fill the entire cavity of the spinal canal at the injury level. This swelling cuts off blood flow, which also cuts off oxygen to spinal cord tissue. Blood pressure drops, artane dramatically, as the body loses its ability to artane. As blood pressure lowers even further, it interferes with the electrical activity of neurons and axons.

All these changes can cause a condition known artane spinal shock that can last artane several artane to several days. Artane there is some controversy among neurologists about the extent and impact artane spinal shock, and artane its definition in terms artane physiological characteristics, it appears to occur in approximately half the cases of spinal cord injury, and it is usually artane related to the size and severity of the injury.

During spinal shock, even undamaged portions of the spinal cord become temporarily disabled and can't communicate normally with artane brain. Complete paralysis may develop, with loss of reflexes and sensation in the limbs.

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20.02.2020 in 03:59 Megar:
Excuse, I have removed this phrase